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Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA) makes remarks regarding the seriousness of the hearings and the role of a Supreme Court Justice. Senator Grassley discusses U.S. President Ronald Reagan's duty in selecting competent Supreme Court Justices, and the Separation of Powers. Grassley says O’Connor’s role in the Judicial Branch will be to adjudicate, rather than legislate. Grassley stresses the importance of O’Connor’s answers to the following questions for the committee’s report. Grassley closes his remarks.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Howell Heflin (D-AL) discusses the revitalization of the Judicial Branch that takes place with the appointment of a new Supreme Court Justice. Senator Heflin says free press and a strong independent Judiciary are vital to the Republic. Heflin discusses the Supreme Court’s final say on law and legislation.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Howell Heflin (D-AL) discusses the importance of the Senate’s Constitutional duty to approve the Supreme Court Justice nominations of the U.S. President. Senator Heflin discusses U.S. President George Washington and the first U.S. Attorney General Edmund Randolph. Heflin cites President Washington as saying the administration of justice, is the firmest pillar of government. Heflin discusses the importance of assuring the strength of justice by assuring those selected as its custodians. Heflin discusses his prior working relationship with O’Connor, having participated with her in various judicial matters. Heflin has learned firsthand of O’Connor’s exceptional intelligence, her hard work in the preparation of issues, and her integrity. Heflin says U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s appointment of O’Connor will reflect great credit on his Administration, the Supreme Court, and the nation. Heflin quotes U.S. Appeals Court Justice Learned Hand as saying "thou shall not ration justice." Heflin cites Justice Hand as a great jurist and model for O’Connor. Heflin closes his remarks.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Jeremiah Denton (R-AL) says he's delighted that U.S. President Ronald Reagan has nominated a lady to be Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Senator Denton says this is the highest tribute the government can bestow on an attorney, and President Reagan placed the highest trust in O’Connor by nominating her. Denton congratulates O’Connor on her nomination, adding that he respects and likes her. Denton says he is certain the O’Connor will be approved as a Supreme Court Justice, but he is obliged by his conscience to raise certain issues. Denton raises issue with O’Connor’s stance on abortion and women in the military. Denton says he can respect the views of those who support abortion, but feels the government is responsible for protecting all life. Denton fears that allowing abortion will establish a point of no return and move away from the principles upon which the U.S. Government was founded. Denton discusses the virtue of life, God, and the inalienable rights of man. Denton regards legalized abortion as a violation of the fundamental principle of the U.S.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Jeremiah Denton (R-AL) says his opinion on abortion will affect the way he decides to vote on O’Connor’s confirmation. Senator Denton says O’Connor’s answers at this hearing, not her previous record will determine his position. Denton says he trusts O’Connor and knows she could have changed her mind or could still be changing her mind on the issue of abortion. Denton mentions the passing of the Hyde Amendment. Denton discusses each Senator’s obligation to Article II of the U.S. Constitution. Denton says his decisions must reflect the welfare of the country. Denton hopes that O’Connor’s answers will be neither broad nor bland, because he will base his vote on those responses. Denton requests that the opening statement by Constitutional Lawyer William Bentley Ball be added into the record. Denton closes his remarks.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA) believes O’Connor should be evaluated on her capacity to interpret the Constitution and on the legal issues that will confront the next generation, as well as this generation. Senator Specter believes the most important issue facing society is bridging the generation gap. Specter says the Constitution provides a framework for government spanning generations, eras, and centuries. Specter says the framework laid out by the constitution depends on quality of judicial construction. Specter says O’Connor is likely to play a pivotal part in applying the constitution for up to the next 30 years. Specter quotes U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. "regarding the issues that a Supreme Court Justice could face in years to come, compared to the issues of the present." Specter believes O’Connor has the intelligence, training, and judgement to span the generation gap. Specter closes his opening remarks.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) calls on U.S. General Attorney William French Smith to present O’Connor to the Committee. Attorney General Smith presents O’Connor on behalf of U.S. President Ronald Reagan. Smith discusses his acquaintance with O’Connor. Smith says O’Connor is highly qualified for the post of Supreme Court Justice. Smith says O’Connor has exemplified the quality of judicial restraint throughout her career. Smith says O’Connor has a very strong commitment to the role States play in the U.S. Government. Smith believes O’Connor is the best candidate for the position of Supreme Court Justice.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) calls U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) to speak before the committee. Senator Goldwater is honored to introduce O’Connor to the committee. Goldwater offers his “unqualified” endorsement of O’Connor. Goldwater calls O'Connor a very fine judge. Goldwater cites O’Connor’s legal and political background, adding that she extremely well liked in Arizona. Goldwater says O’Connor has done far more for the community than most women or men. Goldwater cites O’Connor’s many awards from civic and religious groups. Goldwater points out O’Connor’s 30-year marriage, adding that she has raised three sons. Goldwater says O’Connor is the most family-oriented person there is. Goldwater says O’Connor has a deep love for the U.S. Constitution. Goldwater says O’Connor has an attachment to the principles that secure our liberties and to the science of government. Goldwater discusses O’Connor’s abilities and qualifications as a judge. Goldwater says as an appeals court judge, O’Connor demonstrated proven competence in reviewing lower court decisions. Goldwater says as a state judge, O’Connor will bring a perspective that is important to our federal system. Goldwater also cites O'Connor's previous position as an Arizona state legislator. Goldwater cites his long relationship with O’Connor, saying she will serve the nation well as a Supreme Court Justice. Goldwater asks to have the written statement of U.S. Representative John Rhodes (R-AZ) added into the record.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) calls U.S. Senator Denis DeConcini (D-AZ) to speak before the committee. Senator DeConcini believes O’Connor will be affirmed as the first woman Justice on the Supreme Court. DeConcini believes the Supreme Court is long past due to have a woman Justice. DeConcini says O’Connor has distinguished herself as a judge at both the trial and appeals court levels. DeConcini discusses O’Connor’s career in the Arizona State Senate, where she served as Majority Leader and as a chairman of one of the major committees. DeConcini discusses O’Connor’s career as an attorney. DeConcini calls O’Connor an active private citizen who is willing to devote her time for the benefit of the public, listing various roles she has held for public organizations. DeConcini says O’Connor has served in the Judicial, Executive, and Legislative Branches of government with distinction. DeConcini says O’Connor has valuable insight on how each of the government branches work. DeConcini says O’Connor has a good foundation for a career on the Supreme Court. DeConcini is convinced that the committee will see O’Connor as a superb Supreme Court Justice and confirm her. DeConcini congratulates U.S. President Ronald Reagan not only for nominating a woman, but choosing an outstanding candidate.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Denis DeConcini (D-AZ) speaking before the committee. Senator DeConcini discusses his time working with O’Connor in the Arizona Governor’s office, he was an administrative assistant and she was the Assistant Attorney General of Arizona. DeConcini points out that O’Connor was a Republican legal counsel for a Democratic governor. DeConcini commends O’Connor’s reputation for fair bipartisanship and a strong work ethic. DeConcini says O’Connor’s foes recognize her as professional. DeConcini says O’Connor’s reputation is beyond reproach. DeConcini says O’Connor has many traits that are necessary for a professional and says she will be sworn into the Supreme Court. DeConcini says as a Democrat, he supports the Republican nomination and the superb Justice O’Connor will make. DeConcini says the Arizona Delegation gives concurrent bipartisan support to O’Connor and recommends that the Senate confirms her swiftly.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Denis DeConcini (D-AZ) speaking before the committee. Senator DeConcini points out O’Connor’s family is present for support her, adding that her record as a wife and mother is commendable. DeConcini points out the people that have come from Arizona to speak for O’Connor. DeConcini says O’Connor will not only be the first woman Justice on the Supreme Court, but she will be one of the best.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) calls U.S. Senator Jennings Randolph (D-WV) to speak before the committee. Senator Randolph makes his way through the audience to take his seat at the stand, next to U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) and O’Connor. Randolph addresses the committee. Randolph discusses the historical nomination of a woman for Supreme Court Justice. Randolph regrets that it has taken this long to acknowledge the place of women in administering justice. Randolph says O’Connor has not solely been nominated as a woman, but also because her record qualifies her to serve on the Supreme Court. Randolph says it would be naive to believe O’Connor’s sex will cease to be a factor in her decisions, if she becomes a Supreme Court Justice. Randolph says O’Connor will be urged to have feminist rulings and will be criticized if she makes them, or if she resists pressure. Randolph looks forward to a time when the members of the Supreme Court are selected solely on their experience, their knowledge of the law, and their dedication to the U.S; as a nation governed by the laws the people impose on themselves.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. U.S. Senator Jennings Randolph (D-WV) speaks before the committee. Senator Randolph says when O’Connor is affirmed to the Supreme, she will have succeeded in having a woman hold virtually every high office the country has to offer. Randolph anticipates there will one day be a female President of the United States. Randolph cites U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s appointment of the first woman to the Presidential Cabinet, U.S. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins. Randolph discusses Secretary Perkin’s record and historical significance. Randolph wishes O’Connor well in her future career as a Supreme Court Justice. Randolph says O’Connor will be called on to make many difficult decisions. Randolph is confident the O’Connor will approach her decisions with a spirit of fairness, justice, and equity. Randolph closes his remarks.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) calls U.S. Representative Mo Udall (D-AZ) to speak before the committee. Representative Udall asks that a newspaper column he wrote favoring O’Connor’s nomination be added to the record. Udall makes a few jokes regarding his help in securing O’Connor’s confirmation by the committee. Udall discusses the historical rumor that First Lady Edith Wilson took over the duties of President during the last year and-a-half of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson’s presidency, as President Wilson was too ill to work. Udall says the whole state of Arizona is praying for O’Connor and thinks she would be a great appointment to the Supreme Court. U.S. Senator Edward “Ted” Kennedy (D-MA). Udall says O’Connor has a great judicial temperament, calling her tough, but gentle. Udall says O’Connor is clearly conservative, but has never placed partisan political values before justice. Udall says O’Connor is a practical, fair, conscience, and open-minded Judge. Udall tells Senator Thurmond he will make no mistake in confirming O’Connor.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) calls U.S. Representative Eldon Rudd (R-AZ) to speak before the committee. Representative Rudd addresses the committee and Senator Thurmond. Rudd offers his wholehearted support for the nomination of O’Connor as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. Rudd discusses his personal history with O’Connor. Rudd has known O’Connor as a political campaigner, a distinguished legislator, and a distinguished jurist. Rudd says he has supported O’Connor in all of her positions, adding that she has exceled in every task she has under taken. Rudd says O’Connor has shown devotion to the Constitutional processes which govern the United States. Rudd is certain that O’Connor with bring her integrity and wisdom to the Supreme Court, as she did in all branches of the Arizona State Government. Rudd calls O’Connor a serious student of the law and says her record reflects her strict interpretation of the judiciary. Rudd says O’Connor’s experiences in government have given depth to her views. Rudd believes O’Connor is well qualified for the position of Supreme Court Justice. Rudd calls O’Connor’s nomination a testament to U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s commitment to a stable and responsive government. Rudd urges O’Connor’s confirmation as an Associate Justice to the Supreme Court.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) discusses some of the resolutions that will be added into the record. Senator Thurmond calls on O’Connor to testify; Sandra Day O’Connor is sworn in.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. O’Connor delivers her opening statement to the committee. O’Connor expresses gratitude to U.S. President Ronald Reagan for nominating her, and thanks the committee for the privilege of meeting with them. O’Connor is honored to be the first woman nominated to be a Supreme Court Justice. O’Connor thanks the women of the past and present, whose conduct has given her the ability to serve in this role. O’Connor discusses her respect for the Court as a function and institution. O’Connor discusses the importance of the Supreme Court. If confirmed, O’Connor pledges to preserve the government and justice as the foundation of the government. O’Connor says as a state judge and a state legislator, she understands the important role the states play in the Federal System. O’Connor says the role of the Judiciary is to interpret and apply the law, not make the law.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. O’Connor delivers her opening statement to the committee. O’Connor recognizes the responsibility she will face, if confirmed. O’Connor says the committee also faces a responsibility with respect to her nomination. O’Connor says there is a limitation on her responses that she is compelled to recognize, and she cannot tell the committee how she will vote on a particular issue that may come before the court. She feels she cannot endorse or criticize specific Supreme Court decisions, and feels that answering questions such as these would affect her ability to carry out the sworn duty of a Supreme Court Justice. O’Connor says there is no way to predict judgments on future issues, until the time those issues arise. O’Connor addresses Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC). O’Conner asks Senator Thurmond if she can introduce the members of her family that are present. Thurmond allows O’Connor to introduce the members of her family. O’Connor reads an excerpt from one of the marriage ceremonies she has prepared as a judge. O’Connor discusses the importance of marriage and families.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. O’Connor delivers her opening statement to the committee. O’Connor introduces her family to the committee, introducing her three sons and husband John Jay O’Connor. O’Connor introduces her sister and her brother in-law. O’Connor closes her statement and thanks the committee.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) opens the questioning period. Those who testified on O’Connor’s good standing return to their seats. Thurmond asks if there are any members of the press who do not have a seat. Shot of predominately adult Caucasian male and female press members in attendance. Thurmond explains the structure of the questioning period, and each member of the Committee will have 15 minutes to question O’Connor. Thurmond points out the red, yellow, and green lighting system that will time questioning.

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) asks O’Connor what experience qualifies her to be a Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. O’Connor admits that no experience has prepared her for her appearance before the committee or the extent of the media's attention to the nomination. O’Connor hopes that her experience in all three branches of state government will provide a useful background for assuming the responsibility of an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. O’Connor sites her experience as an Assistant Attorney General, an Arizona State Senator, a trial court judge, and as a judge in the Arizona Court of Appeals. O’Connor says her experiences have given her an appreciation for the checks and balances of the three branches of government. O’Connor mentions the important role of the states in the federal system. O’Connor says her experiences on the trial court bench have taught her how the U.S. system of justice works. O’Connor hopes her experiences are valuable to the Supreme Court as the final arbiter in the nation.

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) asks O’Connor to comment on “judicial activism” and the role of the Supreme court in government. O’Connor cites the written comments she made in the committee’s questionnaire. O’Connor believes in the doctrine and philosophy of the separation of powers. O’Connor says separation of powers and checks and balances are essential to the U.S. system of government. O’Connor says in order for the government to work each branch has a responsibility in carrying out its own role and not usurp the role of the other branches. O’Connor says each branch plays a role in upholding the Constitution. O’Connor says it is not just the Judicial Branch that has work to do in upholding the Constitution, the Congress and Executive Branch play a role as well. O’Connor says the role of the Legislative Branch is to determine public policy and it is the role of the Judicial Branch to interpret the enactments of the Legislative Branch. O’Connor says the Judicial Branch has to address any challenge to the Constitutionality of legislative enactments. In carrying out the judiciary role, O’Connor believes in the exercise of judicial restraint. O’Connor believes in the limited role of government and the institutional restraints on the judiciary.

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) asks O’Connor for her opinion on abortion, citing her 1971 vote in favor of an Arizona House Bill, which would have appealed felony statutes on abortion. O’Connor says the personal views of a Supreme Court Justice should be set aside in resolving matters before the court. O’Connor says issues that come before the court should be resolved based on the facts of that particular case, regarding applications of law and the Constitution. O’Connor says judges should not make decisions based on their personal views. O’Connor says she is opposed to abortion as a matter of birth control. O’Connor believes the subject of abortion is a valid subject for legislative action, subject to any Constitutional restraints or limitations. O’Connor discusses her 1970 vote in the Arizona State Senate, regarding abortion.

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U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor continues discussing her 1970 vote in the Arizona State Senate, regarding abortion. O’Connor says she does not easily recall her vote. O’Connor says she had to review the circumstances regarding the Arizona Sate bill in question. O’Connor says the bill considered the repeal of Arizona State statutes that made abortion a felony, including for women seeking an abortion in cases of rape. O’Connor clarifies the legislative history of the bill in question and comments on the increasing public attention on abortion in the present, compared to the 1970s.

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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) asks O’Connor about her support for a 1973 Arizona State Senate Bill that would have provided family planning services to minors, without parental consent. O’Connor says she was a cosigner of the bill in question. O’Connor did not view the bill as dealing with abortion. O’Connor viewed the bill as a policy that would have provided people with information on contraception. O’Connor knew the bill was drafted loosely, but also knew it would be amended in the committee process. O’Connor says the bill did not provide for any surgical procedure, such as abortion. O’Connor clarifies that the bill provided for doctors to perform surgeries that could prevent contraception on adults, if requested in writing. O’Connor says she supported making information on contraception available, hoping it would prevent people from seeking abortions later.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

Clip#:
Audio:
Location:
516001_1_26
Yes
Washington, DC, United States
Year Shot:
Video:
Timecode:
1981  (Actual Date)
Color
00:57:06 - 01:00:00
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Original Film:
HD:
10657
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Confirmation hearings for U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor before the Senate Judiciary Committee. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) asks O’Connor about her 1974 vote against an Arizona State Senate memorial that would have urged the U.S. Congress to create an amendment against abortion. O’Connor mentions Roe v. Wade in 1973. O’Connor discusses her introduction of an Arizona State bill that would allow medical staff to refuse to participate in abortions. O’Connor says the bill did pass the State Senate and became law. O’Connor further discusses the 1974 Arizona State Senate memorial that would have urged the U.S. Congress to amend the Constitution to prevent abortion, except for medical emergencies. O’Connor says she did not support the action at that time in the committee or the caucus. Senator Thurmond signals that his time for questioning has ended, but allows time for O’Connor to finish her response. O’Connor voted against the Arizona State Senate memorial because she was not sure if enough thought was given to what action was appropriate by way of a Constitutional Amendment, in connection with Roe v. Wade. O’Connor says Amendments to the Constitution are very serious matters and should be taken with a great deal of study and thought.

Senate Confirmation Hearings on the Appointment of Sandra...

Clip#:
Audio:
Location:
516001_1_27
Yes
Washington, DC, United States
Year Shot:
Video:
Timecode:
1981  (Actual Date)
Color
01:00:00 - 01:02:10
Tape Master:
Original Film:
HD:
10657
N/A
N/A
U.S. Supreme Court Justice nominee Sandra Day O’Connor continues discussing the issue of amending the Constitution to prevent abortion. O’Connor understands that the U.S. Congress is wrestling with the issue of abortion. Judiciary Committee Chairman, U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond (R-SC) questions O’Connor’s stance against a 1974 Arizona State stadium construction bill, that also limited the availability of abortions. O’Connor says 1974 was an active year in the Arizona State Legislator, regarding abortion. O’Connor says the main purpose of the bill was to allow the University of Arizona to issue bonds to finance the expansion of its football stadium. O’Connor says the bill passed the state Senate and went to the Arizona State House of Representatives. O’Connor says the bill was amended in the House to add a rider, which would have prohibited abortions in any facility under the jurisdiction of the Arizona Board of Regions. O’Connor says as the Arizona State Senate Majority Leader, she was concerned with the issue of nongermane riders. O’Connor opposed the nongermane rider added in the State House when it came back to the State Senate, and believed the rider violated the Arizona State Constitution.